The human spinal disc : relevant anatomy and physiology / Julien Tremblay-Gravel, Fahad H. Abduljabbar, Jean Ouellet, and Lisbet Haglund -- Pathophysiology of disc disease : disc degeneration / Niloofar Farhang, Joshua Stover, Brandon Lawrence, and Robby D. Bowles -- Imaging of the healthy and diseased spinal disc / Darryl B. Sneag and Hollis G. Potter -- Biomechanics of the healthy and diseased spine / Hans-Joachim Wilke and Fabio Galbusera -- Differences between human and animal discs : pros and cons of current animal models for pre-clinical development of biologic therapies for low back pain / Jeffrey C. Lotz -- Grading scales for disc degeneration and regeneration : clinical and experimental / Peter Grunert -- Disc regeneration : in vitro approaches and experimental results / John T. Martin, Harvey E. Smith, Lachlan J. Smith, and Robert L. Mauck -- Intervertebral disc whole organ cultures / Marianna Peroglio, Zhen Li, Lorin Michael Benneker, Mauro Alini, and Sibylle Grad -- Biological treatment approaches : basic ideas and principles / Victor Y. Leung and Kenneth M. Cheung -- Learning from successes of tissue engineered strategies in non-spine cartilaginous disorders / Stephen Sloan and Lawrence J. Bonassar -- Treatment and of degenerative disc disease and disc regeneration : proteins and genes / Daisuke Sakai and Jordy Schol -- Treatment of degenerated disc disease/disc regeneration : growth factors and platelet-rich plasma / Koichi Masuda and Kenji Kato -- Treatment of degenerated disc disease/disc regeneration : stem cells, chondrocytes or other cells, and tissue engineering / Steven Presciutti and Howard An -- Nucleus replacement and repair : autologous disc chondrocyte transplantation / Christian Hohaus, Timothy Ganey, and Hans Jörg Meisel -- Annulus fibrosus repair / Olivia M. Torre, Michelle A. Cruz, Andrew C. Hecht, and James C. Iatridis -- Summary of clinical trials with biological treatment approaches for spinal disease / Gernot Lang, Ibrahim Hussain, Micaella Zubkov, Yu Moriguchi, Brenton Pennicooke, and Roger Härtl -- Total disc transplantation : current results and future development / Jason Pui Yin Cheung, Dike Ruan, and Keith D.K. Luk -- What have we learned from mechanical total disc replacement? / Timothy T. Roberts, Colin M. Haines, and Edward C. Benzel -- Regulatory overview : obtaining regulatory approval of a biologic/cell product / Michaela H. Purcell, Penny J. White, H. Davis Adkisson -- What makes biological treatment strategies and tissue engineering for ddd interesting to industry? / Hassan Serhan, Elliott A. Gruskin, and William C. Horton -- What will the future bring? : perspectives from around the world / Tony Goldschlager, Claudius Thome, Howard An, and Luiz Vialle.
Table of Contents for: Biological approaches to spinal disc rep