Preface -- Introduction -- The aim -- Earlier scholarship -- The chapters -- Historical issues -- Luther, humanism and Philosophy -- New scholarship -- Gifts, presents and favours -- The autonomy of doctrine -- The passivity of reception -- Conclusion -- Luther and beneficia -- Favours in the First lectures on the Psalms -- The proper giving and receiving of favours -- God's earthly and spiritual favours -- Favours as God's mercy -- Comparison with Seneca's De beneficiis -- The allegory of things : Luther's use of allegoria rerum and metaphora rerum 1519-1521 -- Conventional metaphor -- Medieval background -- Second lectures on the Psalms -- Against Latomus -- In sinu patris : the merciful trinity in Luther's exposition of John 1:18 -- The bosom of the father -- Psalm 73:11 in dictata super psalterium (1513-15) -- Sermons and biblical expositions (1524-1538) -- Disputations and other late writings (1536-1545) -- The systematics of Luther's expositions of John 1:18 -- Ipsa dilectio deus est. Martin Luther's use of Peter Lombard, 1. Sent. dist. 17 -- The scholastic background -- Luther's marginal glosses to Lombard (1509-1510) -- Criticism of scholastic theology (1515-1517) -- Late disputations (1537) -- Conclusions -- Desire, consent and sin : the earliest free will debates of the Reformation -- Augustine -- Usingen -- Luther -- Eck and Karlstadt -- Ethics in Luther's theology : the three orders -- The division of ethics : three hierarchies or orders -- The three orders as ordinationes dei -- Prudence in Luther -- Theological action -- Conclusion : a covenant model in Luther's social ethics? -- Weakness of will : Reformation anthropology between Aristotle and the Stoa -- Akrasia in Aristotle and the Stoa -- Other introductory perspectives -- Early Lutheranism -- Early Calvinism -- Conclusions -- The heroic virtue in the Reformation and early Protestantism -- Earlier research -- Pre-Reformation sources -- Luther and Melanchthon -- Early Protestantism -- Conclusions -- Renaissance ethics and the European Reformations -- The Lutheran Reformation -- The Calvinist Reformation -- The Catholic reform -- Theological shaping -- Finnish Luther studies : a story and a program -- The story -- The program -- The Pauline Luther and the law : Lutheran theology re-engages the study of Paul -- The Lutheran Paul vs the new perspective -- Participation in Christ : biblical scholarship, ecumenism and Luther studies -- The Pauline Luther : counter-evidence to Westerholm's Luther -- How radically different is the Christian alternative to the Mosaic law? -- Do Christians remain permanently unable to fulfill the law? -- Who is speaking in Romans 7? and what does the speaker not do? -- Conclusion -- Theology of giving as Comprehensive Lutheran theology -- Strategies of doctrine and theology of giving -- The giver-oriented perspective and its epistemology -- Giving as the seed of comprehensive doctrine -- Truth and love as the "transcendentals" of doctrine -- Road maps and comprehensive theology -- The language of giving in theology -- Model one : the ditransitive construction -- Model two : "give" as basic verb -- Givers, recipients and beneficiaries : Seneca -- Recipients and beneficiaries in forensic justification -- Passive reception -- Receving the gift mere passive -- Justification as a comprehensive event -- Passivity and freedom -- Reclaiming the sentences : a linguistic loci approach to doctrine -- Propositions and sentences -- The loci -- The model -- Exegetics -- Acknowledgements -- Bibliography -- Index of names -- Index of subjects.